Friday, August 21, 2015

School time and that means L.I.C.E.

Head lice are not your typical pests.  For one thing, they largely afflict children. For another, they have very short lives off their host, so are not considered structural pests. Yet PMPs and school IPM coordinators are frequently asked questions or asked to help with head louse infestations.  So I think it's important for the pest control community to know something about these insects, and the latest treatment options.

When my daughter was in second grade she came home from school with head lice. My wife was horrified, but I have to admit I was a little excited.  "My chance to get experience killing head lice," I thought.  But after the third shampoo treatment, and head lice still showing up, it wasn't fun anymore. Perseverance, and lots of time with the louse comb finally got rid of the problem; but it left me with a greater respect for the head louse as a worthy opponent.

With the new school year, we expect new cases of head lice. And according to a new paper delivered at the American Chemical Society and reported this week in Smithsonian.com, this year's head lice are running with a tougher crowd. In the paper by Kyong Sup Yoon, Southern Illinois University-Edwardsville, Texas is among 25 states tested so far and shown to have head louse populations that are resistant to the most commonly used over-the-counter (OTC) head louse shampoo treatments: pyrethrins and permethrin.  In fact, most of the samples tested by Yoon and colleagues (104 out of 109 samples) showed resistance to OTC louse treatments.

If you work with school nurses at a school district, or are asked by customers about lice treatment, or are simply a parent yourself, it pays to be familiar with the latest treatment options for head lice.  After all, these aren't your mother's lice.

First, many lice problems can still be handled with OTC products. Keeping IPM in mind, however, multiple methods (insecticide plus mechanical control in this instance) are always better than one. Louse combs are a great second tool in the parents' tool box.  These fine toothed combs allow hair to pass between the tines, but not lice. Combing should always be done in combination with use of a louse shampoo.

In addition, new treatment options for lice are now available through your doctor.  These products include ivermectin (Sklice®), spinosad (Natroba™), and benzyl alcohol (Ulesfia®).  These products will likely be more expensive, you you might want to try the OTC route + combing first.  But it's always good to have options.  A recent review article by Drs. Cynthia Devore and Gordon Schutze in the journal Pediatrics does a nice job of reviewing these as well as other options for treating children for head lice.

Devore and Gordon also address the current recommendations for how schools should handle control including whether children should be screened, how to manage a child on the day lice are detected, and whether children should be restricted from school (they argue no).  This paper could be an especially useful resource pass on to your school nurse if you work for a school district.

To spray or not to spray

So are environmental sprays needed to help control head lice infestations in a school or home?  One can certainly find pesticides labeled for environmental louse control. Most professionals say no, sprays are not necessary.

Transfer of lice on furniture from one person to another can certainly occur.  I remember a day when my daughter had head lice.  She was reading a book in our living room chair when she got up to go outside.  I started to take her place when I noticed a live and hungry-looking head louse on the chair back where her head had been pressed.

Despite the occasional transfer of lice via furniture or bedding in this way, spraying of such items is not recommended.  Head to head contact, sharing of combs, scarves and hats during play, are far more important means of transmission; and spraying will not help stop these activities. Simple washing of hats, pillowcases and clothing is a safer and more effective means of dis-infesting these items than pesticide sprays.

Keep in mind that these tiny insects have a very short life span once they are off the human head. Head lice are highly sensitive to desiccation, and according to the CDC live no more than 1-2 days off of a host. Any head lice lurking on a bean bag chairs or coat rack in a classroom, therefore, will not survive a weekend in an empty classroom.

So let's leave treatment of head lice to doctors and parents. But let's be ready to offer advice and provide resources for customers and colleagues battling these adaptable pests.  For more information on head lice see our Extension publication on head lice.

Friday, July 31, 2015

Inaugural IPM Experience House Class

Tim Madere, Janet Hurley and I (center, front) taught the very first course
to be offered at the IPM Experience House.  The house (background) is
in the process of being remodeled as a pest control training facility.
Yesterday marked a milestone for the development of IPM Experience House. Fourteen pest management professionals attended the very first hands-on class to be held at the facility. The class focused on rodent and pest exclusion.

Principal trainer for this week's class was Tim Madere with the City of New Orleans Mosquito, Rodent and Termite Control Board.

Have you ever met someone who lives and breathes pest control? Who when traveling to a strange town spends their free evenings scouting rodent activity?  Who doesn't complain to the hotel manager about cockroaches in the room because, well, it's another chance to observe cockroaches?  Well, Tim's that kind of guy.

Tim is heavily involved in the New Orleans Rat Project.  The Rat Project is a National Science Foundation-funded, multi-disciplinary project looking at ongoing impacts of Hurricane Katrina on the New Orleans human and rodent community.  Based on the stories and lessons Tim taught this week, there is no shortage of furry subjects to study in The Big Easy and other places in Louisiana. If you don't believe me, check out this video.

Tim Madere discusses rodent-proofing options in the
field. Can you spot the roof rat rub mark in this picture?
(Hint: Follow the wires from the meter to the soffit)
The course was designed to provide 8 hours of verifiable training for pest control apprentices and technicians, but many of the participants this time were pest control veterans.  According to Jackie Thornton and his technician Ryan Reichert, the reason they traveled all the way from Alvin, Texas was to share what they called a "unique opportunity to experience both classroom and hands-on field training" in one class.

In addition to some classroom time, the class went on two field trips.  First stop was the home of Janet Hurley, instructor for the class and lead school IPM educator for Texas.  Janet recently acquired a home with multiple pest control challenges, including roof rats.  Class members diagnosed the problem(s) and provided Janet with both lots of advice and free pest proofing with Xcluder stuffing material.  Later the class visited the IPM Experience House to learn about best ways to solarize household items for bed bugs as well as selecting the best insecticides for outdoor ant control.  If it hadn't been 100 degrees in the sun we might have stayed out even longer.

As I taught and learned from the group I was struck by how hands-on training easily becomes a two way process.  Not only do students learn from instructors, but teachers learn a lot too.  I never fail to pick up valuable information when I get to spend quality time with each of you. The business of pest control is complex, and each of our experiences are unique--so we all have something to teach.  As I listened to students share information and tips with each other I'm reminded that that's what IPM Experience House is all about, and what we want it to be in the future.

Thanks to all of you who attended the pest proofing class, and for being willing guinea pigs for our hands-on efforts.  There will be lots more about future training opportunities in this blog and on the Experience House website.  Let's keep in touch.

Tuesday, July 7, 2015

Loss for entomology in Texas

The entomology department at Texas A&M University lost a good friend and colleague this week.  Dr. Jim Olson, long-time entomology faculty member and former faculty serving with the Center for Urban and Public Health Entomology (now the Urban and Structural Entomology Program), passed away Thursday, July 2, 2015 in St. Joseph Regional Health Center in Bryan.   

Dr. Olson was for many years the department's professor for medical entomology, with a special emphasis on mosquito biology and control.  He was actively engaged with the Texas Mosquito Control Association, and a mentor to many mosquito control professionals around the state.  While perhaps less known to PMPs, Olson was nevertheless influential in the pest control industry through his many graduate students and the knowledge he so readily passed on to the rest of us extension entomologists.  

If you had known Jim, you would immediately recognize someone who was highly intelligent, but the opposite of stuffy.  On the contrary, he was completely approachable and friendly.  Everyone who knew him would tell you that he was quick to share his opinion on many subjects. Even if you disagreed, you loved him for his passion and entertaining way of expressing ideas. Perhaps the strongest testimony to Dr. Olson's impact is the loyalty and devotion of former students and those who came under his wings--there are many examples.  

Dr. Olson was instrumental in tutoring me about Texas mosquitoes, and had an entertaining way of getting his points across.  One I especially remember was his pronouncement that "prime time television" (because it kept people indoors at dusk) had done as much to combat mosquito-borne disease in Texas as all our other public health efforts combined (probably true).  He did not hold a high opinion of those who fought the use of effective pesticides, having long seen the benefits of insecticides to human health in mosquito control.

A memorial service for Dr. Olson will be held at 10am, Wednesday, July 8, 2015 at Lone Oak Baptist Church, located four miles West of Snook, Texas on Highway FM 60. Memorial services are in the care of Callaway-Jones and Crematory.  His obituary and remembrances/condolences can be passed on to the family through this link at Callaway-Jones Funeral Home

Wednesday, July 1, 2015

All hands-on deck training

Entomology faculty at the Texas A&M AgriLife Research and Extension Center at Dallas will be conducting hands-on rodent and pest exclusion training July 30.  If you or your technicians need an introduction to residential exclusion work, this workshop is for you.

The day-long training will begin at 8 am in Building C at the Center at 17360 Coit Road, Dallas, TX 75252.  It will include both classroom and field visits to two sites to discuss pest exclusion. 

“This is the first time the center will be hosting such a program that includes demonstrations of residential exclusion practices,” said Janet Hurley, Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service urban IPM specialist. “Hands-on instruction will include showing how to seal a house to keep pests from moving in.”

Presentations and instruction will be provided by AgriLife Extension experts from the Dallas center and from guest trainer Timmy Madere, of the City of New Orleans Mosquito, Rodent and Termite Control Board. See a copy of the program by clicking here.  According to Hurley, "Timmy has trained with the best, and has a unique understanding of rodents.  He has worked on exclusion related activities for ten years with the City of New Orleans." 

Six continuing education credits will be offered for commercial applicators. For apprentices and technicians, a course certificate for six hours of attendance will be provided.

After a quick review of IPM principles behind exclusion work, the morning agenda will include a field trip to residence for instruction on best ways to seal a home, including how to pest proof siding, gutters, soffits and flashing.  

Afternoon presentations will address how to evict and keep out rats, bats, birds and squirrels, and a brief overview of home inspections for termites and ants.  The afternoon will include a walking tour of the IPM Experience House training facility.  

The cost of the program is $75, lunch not included. Space is limited, so attendees are encouraged to register as soon as possible.  To register and for payment information, go to Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Conference Services at https://agriliferegister.tamu.edu/index.cfm/productDetails/productid/1799/ or call 979-845-2604.

Tuesday, May 26, 2015

Bookworms, insects and the teeth of time

Today the term bookworm has come primarily to mean a person with their nose always in a book. So I was a little surprised to learn something new about the more literal form of the word.

According to the Oxford English Dictionary the word bookworm has two meanings: (1) A person who enjoys or is devoted to reading (a "candle waster" as one 1601 writer complained); or (2)  Any of various insects that damage books; specifically a maggot that is said to burrow through paper and boards.

Surprisingly, there seems to be little agreement by non-entomologists on what kind of insects bore through books and consume the pages of history.  The larvae of wood boring beetles (anobiids) are mentioned (I've never seen this myself), as are moths, mites and booklice. Rarely does one hear about termites, though here in the U.S. our Reticulitermes flavipes has been known to partake in a good book when given the opportunity.  Indeed paper could and does make a very good bait for termites in the soil.

According to historian Stephen Greenblatt, bookworms as eaters of books have been the great fear of librarians and writers since before the Christian era. The
Illustration from Robert Hooke's 1665
book Micrographia shows a silverfish,
orabatid mite and pseudoscorpion.
Micrographia is available online for free.
silverfish is one.  In 1665 the British scientist Robert Hooke, working with one of the earliest and finest compound microscopes of his time penned the following description of a silverfish:
It is a small white Silver-shining Worm or Moth, which I found much conversant among Books and Papers, and is suppos'd to be that which corrodes and eats holes through the leaves and covers; it appears to the naked eye, a small glittering Pearl-colour'd Moth, which upon the removing of Books and Papers in the Summer, is often observ'd very nimbly to scud, and pack away to some lurking cranney, where it may the better protect itself from any appearing dangers.
If Hooke's charming anatomical description does not adhere to today's more precise terms, it still describes the silverfish reasonably well [some spellings corrected]:
Its head appears big and blunt, and its body tapers from it towards the tail, smaller and smaller, being shap'd almost like a Carrot....It had two long horns before, which were straight, and tapering towards the top, curiously ring'd or knobb'd, and bristled...the hinder part of the creature was terminated with three tails, in every particular resembling the two longer horns that grew out of the head
Later, he refers to silverfish (and other paper chewers) as representing the "teeth of Time", appropriate considering how much of history has been literally swallowed up by the silverfish and its ilk.

Silverfish are among the most primitive of the hexapods. Belonging to the insect order Thysanura, springtails and their cousins the firebrats are probably less known to most PMPs than, say cockroaches or ants.  Yet they are among the most common structural pests, especially in older structures. Unlike true insects, they do not go through metamorphosis and never seem to stop molting, even after reaching the adult stage. Instead, the nymphs look like miniature versions of the adults. Silverfish are roamers, and will travel throughout a structure to find food.  Once found though, they tend to stay close to their food source.

So on what do silverfish feed?  They seem to especially like paper that has been treated or coated with edible substances like starch, dextrin, casein, gum, and glue. Many of these materials are added to paper to influence its ability to absorb water or ink.  Glues used in books are also often natural in origin, and apparently tasty to silverfish.  But silverfish also digest cellulose, as shown experimentally by their preference for onion skin and cellophane (almost pure cellulose).  The well-known (to PMPs) entomologist Arnold Mallis showed that newsprint and cardboard and brown wrapping paper is almost never eaten by silverfish. They will feed on plant textiles like linens, cotton and lisle, however silk or wool is rarely eaten.

The Mallis Handbook notes that silverfish can be one of the more difficult pests to control, and elimination from a structure is not likely, short of fumigation.  This is largely because silverfish are able to hide throughout a structure in all its nooks and "cranneys"--as Hooke described them. It is certainly difficult, if not impossible, to treat all the hiding places of silverfish in a house. Desiccants applied to cracks and crevices where silverfish hide can be effective.  According to Frank Meek in the Mallis Handbook, silverfish are difficult to control using baits, though there may be limited value in applying some of the fine granular baits labeled for silverfish control.  Reducing humidity, vacuuming, sealing up valuable items, removing known food sources, and use of sticky traps are also listed as non-chemical controls for silverfish.

I have to admit that I have little practical experience with silverfish, except perhaps the few in my own office where they seem to relish small amounts of spilled cricket bait around my tarantula cage (crickets feed the tarantula). But now that I think of it, perhaps I had better spend more time considering how to discourage these critters before they devour some of my favorite books.

As Greenblatt noted, the ancients realized the battle against bookworms would be never-ending, and the best solution was to read the books (or parchments) regularly, and plan on replacing them when they inevitably decay. Of course your customers may not be happy with that, so its up to you to solve the puzzle of the bookworm 350 years after Robert Hooke first trained his microscope on the "silver-shining worms".

Acknowledgement to Stephen Greenblatt and his book: The Swerve: How the World Became Modern, for the inspiration for this post.

Wednesday, May 13, 2015

Wild for insect photography

Alex Wild face-to-face shot of a bed bug.  This image and
many more are available at www.alexanderwild.com 
Last week renowned insect photographer Alex Wild gave a webinar (web delivered speech) on insect photography for Entomological Society of America members.  Many of you in pest control land have likely seen some of Alex's ubiquitous pictures in industry brochures and magazines.  He especially seems to get lots of use out of the many pictures he's taken of insects on bright white backgrounds.

If you have any interest in insect or macrophotography you will probably get a lot out of this hour-long video. If you're thinking you don't have a good enough camera to get into insect photography, the talk focuses on five principles that will help anyone with any digital camera, including a cell phone.  The principles include:
  • Keep it simple
  • Consider the light
  • The Center's not the Center
  • Tell a Story with your lens position
  • Patience is a virtue
And lastly, something I really appreciate, he talks about dealing with insects as uncooperative subjects.  I've often envied my horticulture and weed specialist colleagues whose subjects don't run when the camera emerges. Alex shares a few tips that will help you tame those frisky insects prior to taking the shot.

All in all, a worthwhile way to spend an hour.

Just a plug for Alexander Wild Photography, by the way. Alex does sell his images for commercial use, so if you are looking for a particular insect picture for an ad or web page, go to http://www.alexanderwild.com

Monday, May 11, 2015

Talking about pesticide risk

How many times have you been asked some variation of the question, "How toxic is that pesticide?" Maybe it's been in the form of a statement from a new customer: "I'm expecting," or "I'm chemically sensitive."  Or perhaps you've heard, "Will your spray hurt my puppy?"

How we answer that question says a lot about our credibility and our professionalism.  So it might just pay to think about some of the better ways to talk about pesticide risk. I'm not an expert in risk communication, but I've had the opportunity to talk with lots of people about pesticides.  And I find that most people are a lot more accepting of pesticides as tools if they are approached properly and with an olive branch rather than a stick.

Of course, if people made decisions about risk based on logic and reasoning, we could answer questions about pesticide risk with facts and figures.  But experts in the field of risk perception tell us that when it comes to assessing risk none of us are very rational. Hence we fret over the threat of catching Ebola in America (1: 13.3 million), but don't worry daily about being in a car accident (1: 9,100 chance this year).  For this reason, I know we won't convince everyone to hire a pest control company tomorrow, but I believe with the right approach, we can offer consumers a little peace of mind about their pest control service.

Here are a few suggestions for talking with potential customers about pesticide risk:

  • Show your customer you care. Let them know you are concerned about their safety and make every effort to keep indoor pesticide use to a minimum through the use of IPM (assuming this is true!). Assure your customer that you use only those pesticides that are necessary to do the job you're being asked to do. 
  • Avoid use of the word “safe”. There is no guarantee of absolute safety for any pesticide, or drug--or any activity we do, for that matter. Instead use the concept of risk. We can guarantee a level of risk, if we can never guarantee absolute safety (a one in a million risk is not absolutely “safe”). Although the EPA does not “approve” pesticides, it will not register a pesticide unless it's persuaded that there is no unreasonable risk of adverse effects associated with its label uses. 
  • Pet peeve: Avoid comparing the toxicity of pesticides to food items like table salt. While it's true that table salt has toxicity, and some insecticide LD50 values show less toxicity than table salt, most people don’t buy it. After all, we produce salt to be ingested. Insecticides are produced to kill stuff. Its apples and oranges--not a fair comparison. When comparing toxicity, compare your products to another pesticide or consumer product that the customer already uses. For example, many pets are treated by vets for fleas with the same active ingredients used in household pest control. If they have already accepted the risk in applying a product to their pets, then it’s not unreasonable to propose use of the same product outdoors or in protected crevices of the home with even less exposure. 
  • Let your customer know that you are concerned about the risk of working with pesticides, because your exposure risk is so much higher than theirs. This sort of explanation is especially helpful because we base many personal decisions on the experiences of friends and acquaintances. Your confidence in your ability to work safely with pesticides is a powerful witness to those you meet.

For potential customers who believe they are sensitive to chemicals, especially pesticides, you may need a slightly different approach. Ironically, these folks often need to be talked out of using pesticides. What I mean is that even chemically sensitive clients think they need an "organic" pesticide or repellent, to get rid of their pests. Even though they are chemical averse, they are still of the idea that there is a chemical (albeit natural) out there to control their pest problem.

Often these callers haven't considered the possibility that there might be a non-chemical solution to their pest problem. This is where knowing your pests comes in. You might be able to offer some environmental modifications, pest proofing or biological control options that can moderate or lessen the pest problem sufficiently.  Or you might be able to confine treatments to outdoor areas.  Or they might consider baits (termites, ants, some other crawling insects) as non-volatile, hypoallergenic alternatives to sprays, dusts or aerosols.

This month it might be worth a little time talking with your staff about how to better talk about pesticide risks. Your sincerity, along with that olive branch, can go a long way toward making that customer with pesticide concerns a customer for life.